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Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford. It furthers the University's objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide.

Print Price: $32.95

352 pp.
6.125" x 9.25"


Publication date:
March 2017

Imprint: OUP US

Migrant, Refugee, Smuggler, Savior

Peter Tinti and Tuesday Reitano

Migrant, Refugee, Smuggler, Savior investigates one of the most under-examined aspects of the great migration crisis of our time. As millions seek passage to Europe in order to escape conflicts, repressive governments, and poverty, their movements are enabled and actively encouraged by professional criminal networks that earn billions of dollars.

Many of these smugglers carry out their activities with little regard for human rights, which has led to a manifold increase in human suffering, not only on the Mediterranean Sea, but also along the overland smuggling routes that cross the Sahara and penetrate deep into the Balkans and the hidden corners of Europe's capitals. Yet some smugglers are revered as saviors by those they move, for it is they who deliver men, women, and children to a safer place and a better life. Disconcertingly, it is often criminals who help the most desperate among us when the international system turns them away.

This book is a measured attempt, born of years of research and reporting in the field, to better understand how people-smuggling networks function, the ways in which they have evolved, and what they mean for peace and security in the future.

Readership : Policymakers, human rights lawyers/advocates, and general readers.

Introduction: Smugglers and Saviours
Part 1
1. Smugglers Needed
Options in Exile
Seeking asylum: rights and privileges
Smuggler or Saviour?
2. Smugglers Inc.
A transnational crime
The business model of human smuggling
3. The Who's Who of Smuggling
The bottom of the pyramid
The Logisticians
The Specialists: hawala and the movement of money
The Specialists: New Identities, New Documents
4. Routes
Central Mediterranean route through Libya
Aegean Route through Turkey
Part 2
5. Libya: On the Coast and Out of Africa
Criminal Economies in Libya and the Greater Sahara
Syrian dollars seep into the Libyan coast
Mare Nostrum changes the game
Extortion and abuse
6. Egypt
The mechanics of smuggling by boat
A state sponsored industry?
7. Lines in the Sand: Agadez and the greater Sahel
Understanding the Sahel
Niger, Agadez and the West
New masters
Few incentives to crack down
8. Turkey
The mob: Criminal market consolidation
The $6 billion question
9. Schengen and Beyond
Cracks in the fortress
Out of Greece
The Balkan Odyssey
Secondary moment
Part 3
10. The World We Live In
Postcards from the front
Wider and longer ramifications
Recognising a new migration paradigm

There are no Instructor/Student Resources available at this time.

Peter Tinti is an independent journalist and Senior Research Fellow at the Global Initiative Against Transnational Organised Crime. Formerly based in West Africa, his writing, reporting, and photography has appeared in The New York Times, The Wall Street Journal, Foreign Policy and Vice, among other outlets. Tuesday Reitano has been studying organized crime networks and their impact on governance, conflict and development for over twenty years, both in the UN System, and as the head of the Global Initiative Against Transnational Organised Crime, which she co-founded in 2013. She is based in Beirut, Lebanon.

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Special Features

  • First account to explore the phenomenon of human smuggling related to the influx of refugees to Europe.
  • Deftly combines individual stories, first-hand observation, and convincing, coherent analysis.
  • As much a skillful work of investigative journalism as a work of scholarship.