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Units 5 & 6

UNIT 5: New Century, New Ideas

Life in the Early 20th Century, Atlantic Region
See the resources in Unit 2 of this Web site for information on the Aboriginal peoples in the 20th century. Also check the Reference Section. The "Images" section is especially useful for showing the First Nations way of life in the late 1900s and early 20th century.

  • 1880s Newfoundland: A Pictorial
    Historical photographs of various Newfoundland communities in the late 1800s. 
  • Acadia: Lifestyle in the Days of Our Ancestors
    This site is a virtual tour of the Village Historique Acadian, near Caraquet, New Brunswick. This is an open-air museum made up of buildings from the late 1800s to the early 20th century and exhibits showing Acadian daily life. Also includes a brief history of Acadians. 
  • InfoPEI: PEI in the 20th Century
    History of western Prince Edward Island. Includes information on industry and daily life in the late 1800s and early 1900s. 
  • New Brunswick: Our Stories, Our People
    Information on the peoples and cultures of New Brunswick, from before Contact to the late 1800s. 
  • Picturing a Canadian Life: L.M. Montgomery's Personal Scrapbooks and Book Covers
    A biography of L.M. Montgomery through looking at her personal scrapbooks and books covers. Interesting information about life at the time. 
  • Remembering Black Loyalists, Black Communities in Nova Scotia
    History of loyalist settlement in Nova Scotia, including the 1800s and early 1900s. Includes community profiles, artifacts, and biographies. 
  • Saint John's Black Heritage
    The Black community in Saint John, New Brunswick from the time of the loyalists to the 20th century. Includes primary sources. 
  • The Waldren Studios: Images of Nova Scotia, 1870-1940
    Historical photos of individuals and groups, including some of the earliest photographs of Black Nova Scotians.

Work in the Early 20th Century, Atlantic Region

  • Cape Breton Miner's Museum: History of Mining
    Information on mining technologies and a history of mining in Cape Breton. 
  • The Fisheries Then and Now
    History of the fishing industry in Prince Edward Island. 
  • Lifelines: Canada's East Coast Fisheries
    A history of the fisheries in the Atlantic region, from First Nations traditional fisheries to the introduction of motor boats in Nova Scotia. 
  • Newfoundland Salt Fisheries
    History of the fishing industry in Newfoundland. 
  • Harvests of Prince Edward Island: History
    Read about the importance of this crop to Prince Edward Island at the turn of the century 
  • Wooden Ships of River John
    History of shipbuilding in the Maritimes, with a focus on New Brunswick. Includes illustrations of types of ships and methods of shipbuilding.

Life in the Early 20th Century, General or Other Regions

  • Across the Generations: A History of the Chinese in Canada
    A point-form overview of issues such as push-pull factors affecting Chinese immigration, how communities developed, and racism. Includes a photo gallery. 
  • Archives of the Agricultural Experience
    Information and historical photographs showing the development of agriculture in Manitoba, focusing on the 1800s and early 1900s. Includes information on the family farm and farm women. 
  • Becoming Canadian: Pioneer Sikhs in their Own Words
    Includes information on the life of Sikh Canadians in the early 20th century. 
  • The Canadian West
    Information on the European settlement of the West from before Contact to the 1920s. Includes a wide variety of primary sources and information on topics such as cultural life, urbanization, and the changing role of women. 
  • The Census: One Hundred Years Ago
    Analysis of information from the 1991 censuses under topics such as industry, immigration, women, and living conditions. Includes maps and tables. 
  • Vancouver's Golden Years, 1900-1910
    Photographs of Vancouver at the beginning of the 20th century.

The Industrial Revolution

  • Great Inventors of the Industrial Revolution
    Descriptions of the main inventions of the Industrial Revolution.

Inventions, Innovations, and Discoveries, Early 20th Century

  • Athena's Heirs: Exploring Four Centuries of Canadian Science and Medicine
    Key events and discoveries in science and medicine from 1535 to 2000, including Aboriginal knowledge. 
  • Canadian Inventions
    A list of Canadian inventions. The dates provided make it easy to select topics relating to the early 20th century. 
  • The Great Idea Finder
    All about invention and innovation, past and present. 
  • Group of Seven
    Information about an innovative group of Canadian artists in the early 20th century.

Women and Social Reform, Early 20th Century

  • Carrie M. Best: A Digital Archive
    Information about the life and times of Carrie Best, whose Life Story is told on page 254 of Changing Your World. Includes an interview. 
  • Celebrating Women's Achievements
    The "Activism" and "Politics" sections include biographies of social reformers of the early 20th century. 
  • The Famous Five
    The story of how Emily Murphy, Henrietta Muir Edwards, Louise McKinney, Irene Parlby, and Nellie McClung fought for women to be classed as "persons" under the British North America Act, and therefore be equal to men. Includes a lot of general information on the lives of women at the time. 
  • Women at Work
    Primary sources and information about the change in women's work in New Brunswick from the late 1800s to the late 1900s. If you need it, ask for help with this site.

Worker's Rights and Unions, Early 20th Century

  • Canadian Labour History, 1850-1999
    The "Beginnings," "Workers Unite," and "Labour's Revolt" sections tell the story of the early union movement. Includes a variety of primary sources and audio files. 
  • Child Labour in America, 1908-1912
    A collection of photographs from the United States. Working conditions were similar for Canadian children. 
  • Once Upon a Mine
    History of pre-Confederation mining in Newfoundland.

Canadian Labour Laws Today

  • Information about Labour Laws
    Information about labour laws in the form of questions and answers.

Child Labour Today

  • Free the Children: Child Labour
    Facts about child labour today, personal stories of child labourers, and suggestions for how young people can take action on this issue.


UNIT 6: A Stronger Nation

The British Empire

  • The British Empire
    List of former members of the British Empire, current possessions of Britain, and current members of the Commonwealth. 
  • Celebrating Dominion Day 1867-1917
    Images and descriptions of historical celebrations of Dominion Day that might be useful for ideas about how Empire Day would have been celebrated in the early 20th century. Also search this database for images of Empire Day and Victoria Day that are of the appropriate date. 
  • Canada & The South African War, 1899-1902
    Canada's involvement in the War in South Africa. 
  • The Maple Leaf Forever
    Words and (recorded) music. This "Great Canadian Tunebook" site provides words and plays music for many traditional Canadian songs. 
  • Victoria Day and Empire Day: A Canadian Tradition
    Basic information about the history of the holiday.

The Monarchy in Canada Today

  • Citizens for a Canadian Republic
    An organization that supports and promotes the idea of Canada breaking its ties to the British monarchy. 
  • The Monarchist League of Canada
    An organization that supports and promotes Canada's ties to the British monarchy.

The First World War, General
Many of these sites also include information on war technology and life on the home front.

  • An Archival Look at World War I
    Historical photographs, documents, and official government postcards sorted according to the following First World War topics: Canadian home front, warfare, women in the war, and technology of war. 
  • Beaumont-Hamel
    A tribute to the sacrifice of Newfoundlanders at Beaumont-Hamel. Includes photographs of monuments to the soldiers and the battlefield today. 
  • Canada and the First World War
    The war at home and abroad, including memoirs and historical artifacts. Includes additional information about Lois Allen, whose song is on page 301 of Changing Your World
  • Canvas of War
    War art, including the First World War. Includes background information on the war and an explanation of the War Artists project. 
  • The First World War
    Veteran's Affairs Canada site on the First World War. Includes historical overview, focus on Vimy Ridge, personal diaries from the time, interviews with veterans, and a biography of John McCrae. 
  • For King and Empire: Canada's Soldiers in the Great War
    Details of the battles of Vimy Ridge and Passchendaele as well as biographies of soldiers who fought in the war. Many of the biographies include primary sources written by the soldiers, such as diaries, letters, and poetry. 
  • Newfoundland and the Great War
    Newfoundland's involvement in the First World War, including the formation of the Newfoundland Regiment, life on the home front, women's involvement at home and abroad, and political and economic issues. Includes primary sources. 
  • The Prime Ministers of Canada
    "Quick Facts" and a biography for each Prime Minister, with additional "Iimpressions" and "Issues" sections for some key figures. Includes Wilfrid Laurier and Robert Borden. 
  • CBC Archives: First World War
    Television and radio clips on the First World War.

The First World War, Volunteers

  • Some Missing Pages: The Black Community in the History of Québec and Canada
    Information on Black history in Canada. Click on the "Table of Contents" link on the left, and then on the link for "Unit 5: The Great War and the Black Soldier." This unit shows attitudes toward and experiences of Black soldiers during the First World War and describes the contributions of Black women on the home front. Includes primary sources. 
  • Honour Before Glory
    Information on the No. 2 Construction Batallion. Written to accompany a documentary of the same name. The video is also a suitable source for Grade 7 students. 
  • Jack Turner's War
    Photographs taken by one young soldier from Prince Edward Island during the First World War. Good source of information on what everyday life was like for a soldier. 
  • Remembering Our Heroes
    Information on First Nations participation in the First and Second World Wars. Focuses on volunteers from Saskatchewan, but much of the information is relevant to First Nations in all regions. 
  • Raymond Collishaw - Aces and Aircrafts of World War 1
    A short biography of Raymond Collishaw, the Canadian ace pilot of the First World War who headed the Black Squadron. 
  • Courage Remembered
    Information on the First and Second World Wars. Includes brief summaries of the events of the wars, veteran's recollections, and information about war artists.

The First World War, Technologies

  • The Great War, 1914-1918
    The "Trench Experience" section of this British site has information on how the war was fought. Includes a glossary, a film clip of soldiers going "over the top," and activities that use primary sources. NOTE: Be aware that other parts of this site contain material that you might find shocking or disturbing, so check with your eacher before you explore this site. 
  • The Great War Flying Museum
    Historical photographs and illustrations of aircraft used by all participants in the First World War. 
  • Over the Top
    Interactive game in which the player experiences life in the trenches in the First World War. Includes a glossary of war terms.

Life on the Home Front, First World War

Wartime Government Propaganda

  • Canadian War Poster Collection
    A collection of wartime posters that can be searched according to which war, the type of poster (e.g., recruitment or victory bonds), and name of artist. 
  • The Poster War
    Examples of posters, and discussions of how particular images were used for propaganda purposes.