Higher Education

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Practice Midterm Exam

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Multiple Choice Questions

1. Reading merely to grasp basic content is, in essence, ________ reading.
a) passive
b) two-way
c) aggressive
d) 3-D

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2. The literal meaning of a word is called a(n) ________.
a) annotation
b) definition
c) denotation
d) None of the above

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3. A writer's attitude toward his or her subject can be identified through ________.
a) jargon
b) tone
c) the topic sentence
d) grammar

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4. The stage of determining the order of points of an essay is called ________.
a) pre-writing
b) organization
c) research
d) composing

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5. Pre-writing, the first stage of essay writing, is also called ________.
a) beginning
b) inventing
c) first draft
d) organizing

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6. Writing for a span of time without stopping is called ________.
a) mapping
b) brainstorming
c) freewriting
d) clustering

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7. An outline that includes both sub-points and main points is called a ________.
a) scratch outline
b) formal outline
c) graphic outline
d) None of the above

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8. A ________ is an example of writer-based prose.
a) blog
b) newspaper
c) private journal
d) All of the above

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9. The topic sentence tends to be at the ________ of a paragraph.
a) beginning
b) middle
c) end
d) None of the above

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10. A ________ is the last sentence of a paragraph that sums up the main point, recalling the topic sentence.
a) concluding sentence
b) wrap
c) thesis statement
d) None of the above

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11. Strong paragraphs are ________.
a) coherent
b) unified
c) well-developed
d) All of the above

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12. Selective repetition of key words and phrases can ________.
a) help the reader follow the main ideas
b) insult a reader’s intelligence
c) hinder the reader’s understanding of the text
d) All of the above

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13.The ________ pattern determines how an essay or paragraph will be organized.
a) development
b) thesis
c) paragraph
d) chronological

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14. The ________ method of essay development is most effective when you ask a question in the topic sentence and then answer it in the paragraph.
a) cause–effect
b) question–answer
c) problem–solution
d) All of the above

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15. The question, “How is it like something else?” about a particular topic would benefit from a(n) ________ method of development.
a) cost–benefit
b) comparison and contrast
c) analogy
d) description

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16. Description in an essay provides the reader with ________.
a) abstract information
b) concrete detail
c) opinions
d) None of the above

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17. The ________ method of development traces a topic’s development over time.
a) narration
b) process
c) chronological
d) classification

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18. In an essay, description can be used ________.
a) at any point
b) only at the beginning
c) only at the end
d) None of the above

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19. A(n) ________ is a comparison between one object and a second object that is unlike the first one except for the characteristic being compared.
a) allusion
b) analogy
c) fallacy
d) None of the above

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20. Recall during an in-class or examination essay requires that the writer be aware of ________.
a) basic principles
b) procedures
c) methods
d) All of the above

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21. According to the text, a student should plan for at least ________ minutes per question to look over the exam once finished writing.
a) two
b) five
c) ten
d) fifteen

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22. In both argumentative and expository writing, the writer’s voice should remain ________.
a) subjective
b) argumentative
c) objective
d) possessive

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23. A(n) ________ thesis statement announces the topic and makes a comment on it.
a) simple
b) circular
c) expanded
d) spiral

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24. Beginning an introduction with a quotation, question, or personal experience is common of the ________.
a) dramatic approach
b) inverted pyramid structure
c) logical approach
d) None of the above

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25. Thesis statements function to ________.
a) announce the main point
b) introduce the writer
c) establish credibility
d) All of the above

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26. "Simple" and "expanded" may describe types of ________.
a) conclusions
b) thesis statements
c) introductions
d) body paragraphs

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27."Circular" and "spiral" describe types of ________.
a) conclusions
b) introductions
c) thesis statements
d) body paragraphs

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28. A ________ claim is usually an empirical claim that uses evidence-gathering methods of observation and measurement.
a) factual
b) value
c) policy
d) All of the above

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29. ________ may be hard or soft.
a) Research
b) Evidence
c) Argument
d) Analysis

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30. Case studies are most effective in supporting ________.
a) precedents
b) analogies
c) personal experience
d) a hypothesis

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31. ________ contribute(s) to a writer's credibility.
a) Reliability
b) Fairness
c) Knowledge
d) All of the above

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32. ________ involves breaking something down in order to look closely at its elements or to see how the elements connect to make a whole.
a) Comparison
b) Argument
c) Analysis
d) None of the above

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33. An expository essay provides ________ on a subject.
a) an argument
b) information
c) an opinion
d) All of the above

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34. In a ________ method of a comparison and contrast essay, you consider one basis of comparison as it applies to each subject and continue until you have considered all the bases of comparison.
a) block
b) point-by-point
c) definitive
d) None of the above

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35. Process-analysis essay writing focuses on ________.
a) stages
b) outlining
c) drafting
d) definition

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36. When a writer summarizes from a secondary source, it is important to ________.
a) paraphrase
b) give credit
c) write an abstract
d) annotate

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37. When presenting an argument, the writer should be sure that the tone does not come across as ________.
a) logical
b) fair
c) opinionated
d) ethical

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38. Writing with logical, ethical, or moral ________ harms the writer’s credibility.
a) claims
b) research
c) fallacies
d) arguments

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39. A(n) ________ outline lists the strong point first, then the weaker point, and then the strongest point.
a) mixed order
b) inverted climax
c) dramatic order
d) climax order

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40. The text recommends using the “________” rule when creating visuals for oral presentations.
a) minor-major
b) major-minor
c) four-by-four
d) five-by-five

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41. A writer’s rebuttal may be determined by the________.
a) topic
b) audience
c) purpose in arguing
d) All of the above

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42. When presenting an essay as an oral presentation, it is best to begin with ________.
a) the thesis statement
b) the conclusion
c) the opening sentence
d) an outline of the essay

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43. The ________ fallacy asserts a point without supporting evidence on the basis of a firm, perhaps passionate, belief.
a) dogmatism
b) straw man
c) hasty generalization
d) false cause

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44. Compared to the original work, a paraphrase is usually ________.
a) similar in length
b) longer
c) shorter
d) None of the above

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45. A summary omits the ________ found in the original work.
a) examples
b) meaning
c) order
d) All of the above

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46. A summary should be approximately ________ per cent of the length of the original.
a) 5–10
b) 10–30
c) 20–50
d) 50–75

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47. An annotated bibliography is also called a(n)________.
a) Source Appraisal
b) Works Cited page
c) References page
d) expanded bibliography

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48. ________ involves the putting together of ideas from different sources.
a) Documentation
b) Synthesis
c) Citation
d) Integration

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49. “Research” comes from the French word rechercher, which means “________.”
a) evidence
b) support
c) credibility
d) to seek again

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50. Original sources are also called _______.
a) original publishing
b) primary sources
c) tributary sources
d) None of the above

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51. Early in the research process, potentially useful sources may be added to ________.
a) an annotated bibliography
b) a working bibliography
c) an abstract
d) None of the above

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52. ________ are used to customize a database search and include terms such as and, or, and not.
a) Boolean operators
b) Keywords
c) DOIs
d) None of the above

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53. All of the following, except for ________, are examples of primary sources.
a) personal letters
b) encyclopedia entries
c) initial scientific articles
d) literary texts

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54. General knowledge often varies according to ________.
a) audience
b) opinion
c) the writer
d) All of the above

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55. In MLA, if a direct quotation is longer than four typed sentences, the writer should use ________.
a) quotation marks
b) block quotation
c) a footnote
d) an endnote

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56. A ________ includes all of the original thought, but rephrases it.
a) summary
b) paraphrase
c) direct quotation
d) All of the above

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57. A writer can use________ to indicate the omission of one or more words from a direct quotation.
a) ellipses
b) brackets
c) quotation marks
d) boldface

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58. The MLA and APA style guides are updated approximately every ________.
a) decade
b) two years
c) year
d) five years

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59. Most documentation styles include the ________ in the citations.
a) author’s name
b) page number or other locator
c) year of publication
d) All of the above

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60. APA stands for ________.
a) Associated Physiology Association
b) American Psychic Association
c) Associated Physics Association
d) American Psychological Association

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61. Both APA and MLA styles use ________ references for in-text citations.
a) parenthetical
b) footnote
c) endnote
d) None of the above

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62. MLA permits the use of ________ at the end of a document as a way of including additional information.
a) direct quotations
b) block quotations
c) endnotes
d) footnotes

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63. A linking ________, such as to be, connects subjects and predicates in one of six ways.
a) verb
b) adjective
c) noun
d) adverb

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64. This and her are ________.
a) interjections
b) determiners
c) verbs
d) None of the above

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65. Usually, the subject of a sentence performs the action of the ________.
a) adverb
b) verb
c) phrase
d) None of the above

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66. ________ refer to nonspecific groups or individuals.
a) Indefinite pronouns
b) Collective nouns
c) Compound subjects
d) None of the above

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67. A run-on sentence is sometimes called a(n) ________.
a) comma splice
b) fragment
c) fused sentence
d) incomplete sentence

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68. The ________ is a noun, noun phrase, or pronoun that is grammatically parallel to a preceding noun/pronoun and that rephrases or (re)names the preceding noun.
a) antecedent
b) object of the preposition
c) appositive
d) subject complement

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69. ________ adjectives are those in a series that cannot be moved around because the meaning will be changed.
a) Non-coordinate
b) Coordinate
c) Prepositional
d) None of the above

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70. With two coordinate adjectives, commas are ________.
a) required
b) not required
c) left to the writer's discretion
d) None of the above

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71. Semicolons can be used to join ________.
a) independent clauses
b) fragments
c) dependent clauses
d) All of the above

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72. A writer ________ use a comma to separate simple compounds.
a) can
b) should not
c) must always
d) None of the above

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73. Apostrophes indicate the ________ case.
a) interrogative
b) plural
c) possessive
d) All of the above

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74. ________ convey additional information that is not important enough to be included in the main part of the sentence.
a) Dashes
b) Parentheses
c) Colons
d) Semicolons

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75. Collective nouns refer to a ________.
a) group
b) an animal
c) an idea
d) None of the above

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76. If a pronoun lacks an apparent noun antecedent, the result is a(n) ________ error.
a) unclear reference
b) antecedent agreement
c) no reference
d) None of the above

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77. ________ pronouns refer to persons.
a) Personal
b) Relative
c) Interrogative
d) All of the above

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78. A compound sentence is formed by two or more independent clauses joined by a ________.
a) coordinating conjunction
b) prepositional phrase
c) noun
d) fragment

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79. Grammatically, dangling modifiers modify the nearest ________, often giving the sentence an unintended meaning.
a) adverb
b) adjective
c) verb
d) noun

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80. A(n) ________ construction is indirect and can add unnecessary words to a sentence.
a) active
b) passive
c) coordinate
d) adverbial

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81. ________ refers to the final check of the formatted material.
a) Proofreading
b) Copyediting
c) Developmental editing
d) Indexing

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82. To express the importance of concise writing, editors suggest the formula: one + one = ________.
a) two
b) three
c) one-half
d) one-quarter

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83. If a prepositional phrase is redundant it is called a(n) ________.
a) phony phrase
b) dependent phrase
c) empty phrase
d) None of the above

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84. ________ are passive construction that use too many words and place the stress where it does not belong.
a) Active constructions
b) Black hole constructions
c) Intensives
d) None of the above

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85. Informal writing will often allow the use of ________.
a) contractions
b) slang
c) idioms
d) All of the above

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Short Answer Questions

1. A ________ is a broad category that contains many potential topics.

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2. When scanning for gist, a reader focuses on the ________ points.

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3. The best inference is the most ________ one after all the evidence is weighed.

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4. A ________ is a word that means the same thing as, and can therefore replace, another word.

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5. ________ prose is geared towards the audience the essay was designed for.

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6. A(n) ________ outline only represents the main points, usually indicated just by a word or phrase.

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7. Returning to an outline and assessing structure, unity, and logical sequence all involve ________ structure.

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8. A critical response exercises ________ reading skills.

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9. ________ involves underlining potentially useful words, phrases, or sentences; then, choosing the best one to focus on as the beginning point for more freewriting.

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10. To obtain rhythm and avoid unnecessary repetition, a writer may replace repeating words with ________.

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11. In effect, in fact, and certainly are example of transitions of ________.

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12. A ________ paragraph focuses on one central idea announced in the topic sentence, and all sentences relate to that one idea.

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13. ________ words and phrases guide the reader from one sentence to the next, signalling the exact relationship between them.

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14. A ________ essay is focused on the writer—an aspect of his or her life or relevant experience.

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15. A topic can lead a writer to a specific ________ of development for an essay.

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16. Defining a subject can help the writer better understand a topic, especially ________ concepts.

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17. Methods of development such as ________ and description do not involve analysis.

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18. Process-analysis essays are usually ________-based.

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19. Systematically drawing similarities and differences between different objects or concepts defines the ________ method.

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20. ________ writing uses value- or policy-based thesis statements.

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21. Research is most commonly integral to ________ writing.

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22. When writing an essay, pay close attention to the ________ used to introduce the question.

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23. An introduction that uses the logical approach is also called the ________ structure.

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24. A ________ conclusion reminds the reader of the thesis.

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25. A ________ conclusion leads beyond the thesis.

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26. A conclusion should not restate the ________ word for word.

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27. Most essays make some kind of ________, whether of fact, value, or policy.

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28. ________ evidence provides direct support and includes facts, statistics, and results of studies.

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29. ________ evidence indirectly supports a writer's points.

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30. Detailed examples that often take the form of brief narratives are called ________.

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31. A ________ is an example that refers to the way that a particular situation was dealt with in the past.

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32. Demonstrating ________ as a writer will strengthen a writer’s claim.

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33. ________ writing explains or informs.

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34. In a ________-analysis essay, the writer explains stages of a process.

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35. Process-analysis essays often serve to stimulate reader ________.

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36. ________ clauses or sentences issue commands.

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37. Block or point-by-point methods of organization should be applied to a(n) ________ essay.

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38. A ________ is a misleading or unsound argument.

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39. A fallacy of irrelevance that attempts to mislead or distract a reader is called a ________.

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40. A fallacy that compares two things that are not alike is called a false ________.

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41. The use of slanted or loaded language reveals the writer’s ________.

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42. A ________ claim states clearly and directly what a writer will be arguing.

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43. Policy claims attempt to persuade people to take ________.

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44. Beginning an outline with the strongest point is called the ________ order.

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45. When scanning for an article’s usefulness, a writer may save time by first reading the ________.

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46. To ensure that an article is credible, the writer should check if the journal is ________.

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47. An abstract should be written ________ a writer has finished the essay.

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48. A ________ phrase can be used to clearly attribute a statement to one or more people.

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49. Entries in an annotated bibliography must be ________ in length.

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50. An annotated bibliography may include a(n) ________ of a study's usefulness to a project.

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51. A ________ is the rephrasing of somebody else’s ideas.

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52. ________ sources comment on original sources.

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53. Conducting research most often requires focus on factual ________.

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54. A research ________ is a document that tells the instructor what topic you want to study.

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55. A ________ is the address of specific Internet content.

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56. _______ are newspapers, journals, magazines, and yearbooks that are published regularly.

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57. Failure to cite borrowed material from another writer results in ________.

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58. A writer does not need to cite information that is considered ________ knowledge.

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59. ________ marks are not used in a bock quotation.

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60. When a source's exact wording is important to an argument, the writer should use a ________ quotation.

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61. In a ________ format, a mixture of paraphrase and direct quotations are used to effectively show familiarity with a source.

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62. When using ellipses, the writer should type ________ spaced dots to indicate an omission.

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63. APA citation is most commonly used in the ________.

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64. APA uses ________ to separate items in an in-text citation.

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65. MLA permits ________ at the bottom of each page as a way of including additional information.

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66. In MLA style, retrieval information of sources is listed in the ________ page.

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67. For internet citations in the References section, APA style encourages the use of a ________ where available, instead of a URL.

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68. A preposition ________ a noun or pronoun to the rest of the sentence and helps add information to the subject or predicate.

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69. A main pronoun or noun on its own is often called the ________ subject.

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70. A command sentence, known as a(n) ________ sentence, may consist of only a predicate.

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71. The joining of two complete sentences by a comma results in a comma ________.

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72. The comma before the last item in a list of three or more items is called a ________ comma.

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73. A comma can be used to separate coordinate ________.

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74. Dashes convey a break in ________ and should be used sparingly.

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75. Commas should not be used to separate ________ compounds.

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76. A pronoun must agree with its antecedent ________ in number.

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77. ________ pronouns always ask questions.

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78. The technical term for word order is ________.

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79. Dangling modifiers are sometimes called dangling ________.

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80. Correlative ________ are joiners that work in pairs, such as either…or, and neither…nor.

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81. Passive constructions displace the ________ of a sentence.

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82. To pass away and to pass on are ________ for death.

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83. ________ predication occurs where a verb cannot be logically linked to its subject.

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84. A(n) ________ is a phrase whose meaning is understood only within the context of the phrase itself.

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85. ________, which should be kept objective, shows the writer’s attitude toward the subject.

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