Higher Education

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Practice Final Exam

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Multiple Choice Questions

1. Peer-reviewed journals are ________.
a) less-credible than non-peer-reviewed journals
b) more credible than non-peer-reviewed journals
c) informal publications
d) None of the above

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2. A writer supports claims of value through ________.
a) reasoning
b) opinion
c) ethics
d) morals

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3. All of the following, except for ________, are strategies for rebutting the opposing view in an essay.
a) point-by-point rebuttal
b) block rebuttal
c) acknowledgment
d) topic-based rebuttal

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4. Plagiarism may result in ________.
a) a failing grade for the paper
b) a failing grade for the course
c) expulsion from the institution
d) All of the above

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5. A compound subject may consist of ________.
a) two nouns
b) two pronouns
c) a noun and a pronoun
d) All of the above

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6. Expository essays may ________.
a) show steps in a process
b) show cause and effect
c) use comparison and contrast
d) All of the above

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7. A ________ should be used for a direct quotation that is four or more consecutive lines.
a) summary
b) paraphrase
c) block quotation
d) None of the above

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8. A(n) ________ is used to customize database searches.
a) Info Trac
b) long-tail keyword
c) ERIC
d) Boolean operator

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9. Emotional appeals can be useful, depending on the ________.
a) topic
b) audience
c) placement
d) All the above

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10. Slanted language can show a lack of ________.
a) subjectivity
b) objectivity
c) connotation
d) None of the above

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11. Analogy is ________.
a) a comparison
b) an allusion
c) an illusion
d) an image

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12. The ________ approach is the most common and traditional way to create reader interest.
a) logical
b) dramatic
c) mixed approach
d) None of the above

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13. A(n) ________ is an expanded bibliography.
a) annotated bibliography
b) extended reference
c) summary
d) None of the above

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14. A writer must always cite ________.
a) his or her own idea
b) general knowledge
c) everything
d) None of the above

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15.________ refer to persons.
a) Pronouns
b) Adjectives
c) Verbs
d) Dashes

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16. ________ is often used to falsely reassure through indirect naming.
a) Conciseness
b) Active voice
c) Passive voice
d) Euphemism

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17. ________ detract from a writer's credibility.
a) Fallacies
b) Direct quotations
c) Paraphrases
d) Personal opinions

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18. Policy claims make a call to ________.
a) logic
b) passivity
c) action
d) None of the above

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19. Description provides an essay with ________.
a) research
b) concrete information
c) opinion
d) None of the above

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20. The ________ method of development traces a topic's development over time.
a) definition
b) description
c) chronological
d) narration

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21. ________ denotes the process of underlining useful words, phrases, or sentences.
a) Looping
b) Scoring
c) Composing
d) Scanning

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22. Expository writing uses a ________-based thesis.
a) value
b) fact
c) ethical
d) policy

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23. ________ can turn the general into the concrete and clear.
a) Examples
b) Policy claims
c) Experts
d) None of the above

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24. ________ can be used to add concrete detail to an essay.
a) Chronology
b) Process
c) Description
d) Analogy

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25. A claim of value appeals to ________.
a) ethics
b) morals
c) values
d) All of the above

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26. Expository essays usually use claims of ________.
a) definition
b) connotation
c) fact
d) None of the above

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27. ________ can be used to attribute a statement to one or more people.
a) Attributed nouns
b) Signal phrases
c) Directional clauses
d) None of the above

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28. Periodicals can be published ________.
a) monthly
b) yearly
c) policy
d) daily

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29. To cite sources, MLA uses ________.
a) endnotes
b) footnotes
c) parenthetical citations
d) None of the above

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30. ________ are parts of speech.
a) Adjectives
b) Verbs
c) Conjunctions
d) All of the above

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31. A climax order begins with the ________.
a) least important point
b) most important point
c) weakest point
d) None of the above

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32. A(n) ________ thesis statement announces the topic and gives more detail, such as the main points that will be covered in the essay.
a) circular
b) expanded
c) specific
d) interesting

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33. ________ is an example of a transition of illustration.
a) For instance
b) In conclusion
c) Especially
d) None of the above

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34. Composing is part of the ________ draft stage in essay writing.
a) first
b) second
c) final
d) None of the above

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35. Effective thesis statements should be ________.
a) interesting
b) specific
c) manageable
d) All of the above

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36. An extended summary should ________.
a) be factually accurate
b) retain the essence of the original
c) use concise prose
d) All of the above

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37. Writers in the Humanities generally use ________ citation style.
a) MLA
b) APA
c) Chicago
d) None of the above

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38. Dashes and parentheses ________.
a) have the same functions
b) have different functions
c) should not be used in an academic paper
d) None of the above

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39. Proper use of secondary sources allows a writer to ________.
a) support his or her argument
b) demonstrate knowledge
c) reveal skills as a writer
d) All of the above

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40. All of the following, except for ________, are organizational methods for a comparison and contrast essay.
a) block method
b) point-by-point method
c) imperative
d) None of the above

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41. An empirical claim is ________.
a) conjecture
b) factual
c) opinionated
d) None of the above

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42. Deductive reasoning applies a major premise and ________.
a) a minor premise
b) an introduction
c) two minor premises
d) None of the above

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43. To indicate that a part of a direct quotation has been omitted, the writer can use ________.
a) a dash
b) parentheses
c) ellipses
d) None of the above

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44. In most sentences, the subject noun is related to the ________.
a) understanding
b) term
c) action
d) None of the above

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45. An introduction that progresses from a general statement to a more specific statement to the most specific statement is called a(n) ________.
a) logical pyramid
b) inverted pyramid
c) mixed-logic pyramid
d) None of the above

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46. A(n) ________ is a general way of rephrasing someone's ideas.
a) annotation
b) abstract
c) summary
d) None of the above

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47. In-class writing tests a student's ________.
a) recall
b) organization
c) time management
d) All of the above

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48. Opinion is the same as ________.
a) argument
b) logic
c) reason
d) None of the above

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49. The acronym "FOCUS" is applied in the ________ stage of essay writing.
a) research
b) pre-writing
c) revising
d) All of the above

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50. Scanning and focused reading are both forms of ________.
a) analytical reading
b) selective reading
c) editorial reading
d) None of the above

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51. Focused reading concentrates on ________.
a) smaller blocks of text
b) larger blocks of text
c) the entire text
d) None of the above

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52. Paragraph wraps are especially useful in ________.
a) long paragraphs
b) short paragraphs
c) thesis statements
d) None of the above

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53. Analysis involves ________.
a) classification
b) division
c) comparison
d) All of the above

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54. An abstract is generally found at the ________ of an essay.
a) beginning
b) middle
c) end
d) None of the above

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55. The purpose of citations are to ________.
a) establish the writer's credibility
b) allow the reader to trace sources
c) allow the writer to find a reference again
d) All the above

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56. ________ express action, a condition, or a state of being.
a) Pronouns
b) Adverbs
c) Main verbs
d) Prepositions

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57. Colons can ________.
a) supplement a comma
b) introduce a list
c) take the place of a semicolon
d) All of the above

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58. Collective nouns refer to ________.
a) groups
b) non-specific individuals
c) pronouns
d) None of the above

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59. A research ________ announces a topic, a purpose, and research sources.
a) proposal
b) abstract
c) assimilation
d) None of the above

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60. Coordinating conjunctions join ________.
a) equal units
b) unequal units
c) fragments
d) None of the above

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61. A(n) ________, a type of evidence, refers to the way that a particular situation was dealt with in the past.
a) analogy
b) case study
c) precedent
d) illustration

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62. There are many different types of poems: these include ballad, couplet, refrain, and verse. This topic uses a ________ organizational method of development.
a) personal s
b) comparison and contrast
c) definition
d) classification

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63. A ________ sentence introduces the main idea in a paragraph.
a) topic
b) wrap
c) thesis
d) None of the above

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64. After all evidence has been weighed, the best inference is ________.
a) the least probable
b) the most surprising
c) the most probable
d) still unknown

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65. An incomplete sentence is also known as a ________.
a) comma splice
b) fragment
c) clause
d) All of the above

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66. If a pronoun lacks an apparent noun antecedent, the result is ________.
a) an unclear reference
b) an antecedent agreement
c) no reference
d) None of the above

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67. A writer can characterize an audience according to ________.
a) knowledge
b) interest level
c) orientation
d) All of the above

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68. An essay that explains steps in a process is called a(n) ________ essay.
a) step-by-step
b) process–analysis
c) contiguous–analysis
d) None of the above

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69. A ________ conclusion restates the thesis by using different words that stress its importance.
a) restating
b) circular
c) spiral
d) Both a and b

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70. The use of ASAP and STAT in everyday speech are examples of ________.
a) jargon
b) metaphor
c) gist
d) plagiarism

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71. Workplace communication must be ________ and concise.
a) informal
b) clear
c) emotional
d) overbearing

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72. A paragraph wrap ________.
a) repeats the topic sentence
b) reinforces the importance of the topic sentence
c) states the same point as the thesis statement
d) None of the above

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73. Primary sources are ________.
a) original compositions
b) criticisms of sources
c) reviews of sources
d) None of the above

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74. Semicolons can be used to ________.
a) join independent clauses
b) join compound adjectives
c) omit the hyphen in compound adjectives
d) None of the above

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75. ________ sentences begin with modifiers before the independent clauses to create emphasis.
a) Periodic
b) Accent
c) Cumulative
d) None of the above

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76. A writer should introduce a sentence fragment with ________.
a) a semicolon
b) a period
c) another fragment
d) None of the above

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77. When a writer wants to integrate a small amount of relevant material, he or she should ________, unless the material is essential in its original form.
a) use a direct quotation
b) paraphrase
c) use an abstract
d) None of the above

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78. ________ as a method development does not truly involve analysis.
a) Narration
b) Description
c) Chronology
d) Both a and b

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79. Writers in the Social Sciences generally use ________ citation style.
a) MLA
b) APA
c) Chicago
d) None of the above

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80. Passive constructions use a subject that________.
a) does the action
b) does not do the action
c) has a lazy object
d) None of the above

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81. The Noah's Ark Syndrome describes ________.
a) conciseness
b) wordiness
c) allusion
d) All of the above

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82. Reading ________ is the method of reading a paper aloud but more slowly and carefully than would normally be done.
a) forward
b) audibly
c) syllabically
d) backward

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83. ________ refer to nonspecific objects or individuals.
a) Indefinite pronouns
b) Collective nouns
c) Compound subjects
d) None of the above

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84. One can identify an author's attitude toward a subject in his or her ________.
a) jargon
b) gist
c) tone
d) etymology

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85. An apostrophe is ________.
a) not a mark of punctuation
b) a mark of punctuation
c) a mark that pluralizes a subject
d) None of the above

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Short Answer Questions

1. A strong introduction should create reader ________.

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2. An expository essay seeks to convince the reader by using observation, ________, and clear reasoning.

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3. There are ________ main types of reasoning used in arguments.

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4. A Works Cited page is alphabetized by the ________.

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5. A ________ comma appears before the last item in a list of three or more items.

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6. ________ pronouns always ask questions.

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7. Subordinating clauses connect ________ units.

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8. An essay that explains steps in a process is called a(n) ________-analysis essay.

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9. In-class essays and exams require ________, a concept which involves remembering information and terminology.

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10. 10. All sentences relate to the main idea in a ________ paragraph.

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11. A(n) ________ essay is focused on an aspect of the writer's life or a relevant experience.

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12. A strong writer uses direct quotations ________.

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13. A writer should be careful not to allow the practical functions of a process–analysis essay to override other considerations, for instance through the use of imperative ________.

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14. To achieve coherence, a writer may use ________ or balanced structures.

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15. ________ quotations should be used when both the source itself and the exact wording are important.

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16. Information enclosed in parentheses is ________ important than what is not in parentheses.

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17. ________ are overused and unoriginal phrases.

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18. When a writer systematically draws similarities and differences between things, he or she is using the ________ method.

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19. Finally, in conclusion, that is, and therefore are transitions of ________.

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20. Exposition and argument should use ________ language.

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21. When using classification or division, the writer begins with a ¬¬¬________ number of items that are then organized into groups.

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22. In a process-analysis essay, each stage should be arranged in ________ order.

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23. It is extremely important to order an argumentative essay ________.

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24. After finding sources, a writer should ________ the information (taking other people’s ideas and incorporating them into the essay).

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25. A ________ is a group of words that acts as the verb in a sentence.

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26. The ________ is the final paragraph of the essay that sums up what was said in the body paragraphs.

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27. To illustrate a point or add drama to an argument, a writer may use ________ as a method of development.

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28. Direct experience or ________ may constitute personal experience.

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29. ________ format is a mixture of paraphrase and direct quotation.

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30. If one or more items contain commas, a serial ________ can be used to separate items in a series.

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31. ________ evidence indirectly supports a writer’s points.

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32. To connect ideas from one sentence or paragraph to the next, a writer should use ________.

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33. One of the best ways to clarify an abstract idea in an essay is to use example/________.

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34. When writing a critical response, the writer should not force his or her ________ on the text.

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35. An abstract is an overview of an essay’s ________.

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36. APA uses a ________ page at the end of the essay, which contains complete retrieval information.

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37. A definition essay expands on a subject while using a variety of ________ methods.

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38. A(n) ________ thesis statement isn't so general, broad, or obvious that it lack relevance.

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39. To alert a reader to where a reference begins, a writer may use a ________ phrase.

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40. A clause contains a subject and a ________.

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41. Similar to the cause–effect method, the ________–consequent method uses time-order relationships.

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42. The process of thinking about and developing a topic is called ________.

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43. A paragraph that contains more than one idea or an off-topic sentence lacks ________.

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44. The point-by-point method and block method are both organizational methods that can be used in the ________ essay.

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45. Dangling modifiers modify the closest ________.

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46. A scratch outline represents only a writer’s ________ points.

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47. The technical term for word order is ________.

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48. To help a reader follow the main ideas in a paragraph, the writer may use ________ to reinforce a core idea.

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49. The revision stage is the ________ draft of the essay writing process.

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50. The ________ model, which has become one of the most common models of essay writing, breaks down writing into successive stages.

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51. Especially when using research, a writer must be sure to use ________ evidence to reinforce a formal argument.

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52. To indicate a change to a direct quotation, a writer should use ________.

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53. A ________ clause contains information that is necessary for the reader to understand the sentence.

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54. Admittedly, although, and of course are transitions of ________.

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55. ________ is a series of logical mental processes that lead to a conclusion.

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56. The first draft of the writing process is called ________.

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57. The use of logical, ethical, and emotional fallacies harm a writer’s ________.

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58. In the workplace, many proposal or reports result in ________ presentations.

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59. ________ can be an effective form of research if the writer has direct access to a noted authority in the field.

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60. MLA uses a ________ page at the end of the essay, which contains complete retrieval information.

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61. A ________ consists of two of the same parts of speech acting as a grammatical unit.

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62. Word ________ refers to the customary and accepted way that a word is used.

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63. The introduction introduces the main ________ of a text.

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64. When revising a draft, the writer should conduct a(n) ________ of audience and purpose.

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65. The main point of an essay is called a ________.

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66. Otherwise, since, then, and thus are ________ of cause and effect.

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67. Policy-based claims attempt to make people take ________.

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A writer must distinguish between fact and ________ when the purpose of an essay is to persuade the reader.

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69. When a term has multiple definitions within a discipline, the writer may need to establish ________.

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70. Articles in ________ journals have been evaluated by experts.

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71. ________ is the putting together of ideas from different sources.

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72. Only, almost, and just are limiting ________.

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73. When a verb cannot logically connect to its subject, the result is faulty ________.

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74. It is important to present the ________ viewpoint in an argumentative essay.

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75 Knowledge of the topic, reliability, and ________ all contribute to credibility.

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76. ________ is a reading strategy in which the reader looks for key words or sections of a text.

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77. ________thesis statements have only two necessary parts.

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78. To show that a writer shares basic values with the reader, he or she can work to establish ________ ground.

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79. In MLA style, if a signal phrase names the author, the citation requires only the ________.

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80. Dashes convey a ________ in thought.

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Both APA and MLA in-text citations use ________ styles.

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82. Unlike the semicolon, the colon may be said to ________ the reader on.

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83. A paraphrase is usually the same length as the ________.

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84. Audience orientation includes, ________ or ethical positions and attitudes toward the subject matter.

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85. A ________ does not omit any information of substance from the source.

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