By the People
Debating American Government, Brief Edition
James A. Morone and Rogan Kersh
Challenge your students to ENGAGE in the conversation and process; THINK about the ideas, history, structure, and function; and DEBATE the merits of American government and politics in the 21st century.
In a storytelling approach that weaves contemporary examples together with
historical context, By the People: Debating American Government, Brief Edition, explores the themes and ideas that drive the great debates in American government and politics. It introduces students to big questions like Who governs? How does our system of government work? What does government do?
and Who are we? By challenging students with these questions, the text gets them to think about, engage with, and debate the merits of U.S. government and politics.
Ideal for professors who prefer a shorter text, By the People, Brief Edition, condenses the content of the comprehensive
edition while also preserving its essential insights, organization, and approach. Approximately 20% shorter and less expensive than its parent text, the full-color Brief Edition features a more streamlined narrative, deletes the "Comparing Nations" boxes, and is enhanced by the same extensive
support package as the longer edition.
ENSURING STUDENT SUCCESS
We offer qualified adopters a comprehensive ancillary package:
* Companion Website at www.oup.com/us/morone
* For instructors, this site includes the teaching tools described below. For students, this
open-access site offers a number of study tools, including learning objectives, key-concept summaries, quizzes and essay questions, web activities, and web links.
* Instructor's Resource CD
* This CD puts all of your teaching tools in one place. It contains the Instructor's Resource Manual
with Test Item File, the Computerized Test Bank, the PowerPoint-based slides, and the graphics from the text.
* Instructor's Resource Manual with Test Item File: The Instructor's Resource Manual includes chapter objectives, detailed chapter outlines, lecture suggestions and activities,
discussion questions, and video and web resources. The Test Item File includes multiple-choice, short-answer, and essay questions.
* Computerized Test Bank: Using the test authoring and management tool Diploma, the computerized test bank that accompanies this text is designed for both novice
and advanced users.
* PowerPoint-based Slides: Each chapter's slide deck includes a succinct chapter outline and incorporates relevant chapter graphics. Also included are Q&A slides to be used in the classroom with clickers.
* Now Playing: Learning American Government Through Film
This supplement provides a variety of suggested films to illustrate concepts in the text. It is available in both a student and an instructor version and can be packaged with By the People, Brief Edition, for free.
* CNN Video DVD
* Offering recent clips on timely topics, this DVD provides
fifteen films tied to the chapter topics in the text. Each clip is approximately 5-10 minutes in length, offering a great way to launch your lectures.
* e-Book: Available through CourseSmart
* Course Cartridges containing student and instructor resources are available for Blackboard,
WebCT, Angel, D2L, or whatever course management system you prefer.
Readership : Suitable for undergraduate American Government courses.
Each chapter ends with a Summary and Study Questions.
About the Authors
PART I. IDEAS AND RIGHTS
1. Ideas that Shape American Politics
The Spirit of American Politics
- Who Governs
- How Does American Politics Work?
- What Does Government
- Who Are We?
A Nation of Ideas
- "The Land of the Free"
- The Two Sides of Liberty
- The Idea of Freedom is Always Changing
What Do You Think: Negative Versus Positive Liberty
- Power from the People
- One Side of Self-Rule:
- Another Side of Self-Rule: A Republic
- A Mixed System
- The Origins of Limited Government
- And Yet . . . The United States Has a Big Government
- Limits on Government Action
- When Ideas Clash: Self-Rule and Limited Government
What Do You Think: Self-Rule versus Limited Government
- Community Versus Individualism
- The Roots of American Individualism: Opportunity and Discord
- Who Are We: Individualism and Solidarity?
The American Dream
- Spreading the Dream
What Do You
Think: Individualism versus Solidarity
- Challenging the Dream
- Three Kinds of Equality
- How Much Economic Inequality Is Too Much?
- Opportunity or Outcome?
- Still Religious: A Religious Country
- So Many Religions
- The Politics of
How Do Ideas Affect Politics
- Ideas in American Culture
- The Ideas in Political Institutions
- Culture of Institutions
2. The Constitution
The Colonial Roots of the Constitution
Why the Colonists Revolted
- The Colonial Complaint: Representation
- The Conflict Begins with Blood on the Frontier
- The Stamp Tax and the First Hints of Independence
- The Townshend Acts Worsen the Conflict
- The Boston Tea Party
The Declaration of Independence
- The Principle: "We Hold These Truths . . . "
The First American Government: The Articles of Confederation
- The National Government
- Some Success . . .
- . . . And Some Problems
- Winner and Losers
- The First Step: Annapolis Convention
What Do You Think: Your Advice is Needed
The Constitutional Convention
What Do You Think: Was Delegate Secrecy Warranted?
1. How Much Power to the People?
2. National Government versus State Government
3. Big States versus Small States
4. The President
5. Separation of Powers
6. Principle of Which We
An Overview of the Constitution
Article 1: Congress
What Do You Think: Have We Achieve the Constitution's Goals Today?
Article 2: The President
What Do You Think: Detention of Terrorism Suspects
Article 3: The Courts
Relations between the States
Article 5: Amendments
Article 6: The Law of the Land
Article 7: Ratification
- The Missing Articles
- The Anti-Federalists
- The Federalists
- Two Strong Arguments
- A Very Close Vote
- A Popular Surge
Propels People into Politics
Changing the Constitution
- The Bill of Rights
- The Seventeen Amendments
- The Constitution Today
- What Do You Think: How Strictly Should We Interpret the Constitution?
3. Federalism and Nationalism
- Federalism's Advantages
- The Disadvantages
- The Stakes
What Do You Think: Preserving Local Values or Continuing a Terrible Injustice?
How Federalism Works
- The Constitution Sets the Ground Rules
- Dual Federalism
- Cooperative Federalism
Battles over Federalism Today
- Federalism and the Parties
What Do You Think: Intergovernmental Lobbying, American Style
- Federalism in the Courts
Nationalism, American Style
- The Imagined Community
- America's Weak National Government
4. Civil Liberties
The Rise of Civil Liberties
- Civil Rights and Civil Liberties
- The Slow Rise of Rights
- Penumbras and Emanations
What Do You Think: Is There a Right to Privacy?
- Roe v. Wade
- Sexuality between Consenting
Freedom of Religion
- The Establishment Clause
- Free Exercise of Religion
What Do You Think: May the Christian Youth Club Meet in School?
Freedom of Speech
- A Preferred Position
What Do You Think: David's Law
- Political Speech
- Limits to Free Speech: Fighting Words
- Limited Protection: Student Speech
Freedom of the Press
- Prior Restraint
The Right to Bear Arms
- A Relic of the Revolution?
The Rights of the Accused
- Americans Behind Bars
- The Fourth Amendment: Search and Seizure
- The Fifth Amendment: Rights at Trials
- The Sixth Amendment: The Right to Counsel
- The Eighth Amendment: The Death Penalty
What Do You Think: End the Death Penalty?
- Fighting Terrorism and Protecting Liberty
Struggle for Civil Rights
Winning Rights: The Political Process
- Seven Steps to Political Equality
- How the Courts Review Cases
Race and Civil Rights: Revolt against Slavery
- The Clash over Slavery
- Dred Scott v. Sandford
- The Second American Founding: A New
Birth of Freedom?
- Freedom Fails
The Fight for Racial Equality
- Two Kinds of Discrimination
- The Civil Rights Campaign Begins
- The Courts
- The Civil Rights Movement
What Do You Think: Would You Have Been a Sixties Protester?
- Congress and the Civil
The End of the Civil Rights Era
- Affirmative Action in the Workplace
- Affirmative Action in Education
- Where Are We Now?
What Do You Think: Higher Education and Affirmative Action
- The Civil Rights Act of 1964
- Progress-- But How Much?
- Reproductive Politics
- Challenging Discrimination
- The Politics of Immigration
- The Controversy over Language
- Political Mobilization
- The Asian Stereotypes
What Do You Think: Simple
Decency? Or Political Correctness Run Amuck?
- The Lost Way of Life
- Indians and the Federal Government
- Social Problems and Politics
Groups without Special Protection
- People with Disabilities
- Sexual Orientation
PART II. POLITICAL
6. Public Opinion and Political Participation
Measuring Public Opinion
- Polling 101
- Do Opinion Surveys Influence Us?
Sources of Public Opinion
What Do You Think: Calling the Election Early?
- Self-Interest: Voting Our Pocketbooks
Effects: From Region to Religion
- Partisan Effects
- Elite Influence
- Wars and Other Focusing Events
Public Opinion in a Democracy
What Do You Think: How Do You Participate?
- Do the People Know What They Want?
- How Do the People Communicate Their Desires?
- Do Leaders Respond to the Public?
Getting Involved: Electoral, Voluntary, and Political Voice
- Electoral Activities
- Civic Voluntarism
- Political Voice
What Do You Think: Volunteer Globally?
What Inspires Political Participation?
- Spurs to Individual
What Discourages Political Participation?
- Age, Wealth, and Education
- Institutional Barriers
- Shifting Mobilization Patterns
- Generation Y and Political Participation
The Internet, Social Media, and
7. The Media
American Media Today: Traditional Formats Are Declining
- Where People Go for News
- Newspaper Decline
- Radio Holds Steady
- Television: From News to Infotainment
What Do You Think: Movies That Take a Stand
The Rise of the New
- Scenario 1: Rebooting Democracy
- Scenario 2: More Hype and Danger than Democratic Renaissance
Is the Media Biased?
- Reporters Are Democrats
- Profits Drive the News Industry
- Drama Delivers Audiences
- Sex and Scandal
- The Skeptical Media
Governments Shape the Media
- The First Amendment Protects Print Media from Government Regulation
- Regulating Broadcasters
- Protecting Competition
How the Media Shapes Politics
- News Stories Reinforce Existing Beliefs
- The Political Agenda
- Priming the
- Framing the Issue
The Media's Electoral Connection
- The Campaign as Drama
- Candidate Profiles
What Do You Think: Does the Media Enhance Democracy?
8. Campaigns and Elections
How Democratic are American Elections?
- Frequent and Fixed Elections
- Number of Elected Officials
What Do You Think: Too Many Elected Positions?
- Financing Campaigns: The New Inequality?
Presidential Campaigns and Elections
- Who Runs for President?
- Presidential Campaigns Have Three Phases
- Winning the Nomination
What Do You
Think: Why Iowa and New Hampshire?
- Organizing the Convention
- The General Election
- Winning Presidential Elections
Congressional Campaigns and Elections
- Candidates: Who Runs for Congress?
- The Power of Incumbency
- Congressional Election Results
Redrawing the Lines: The Art of the Gerrymander
- Nonpartisan Districting and Minority Representation
How to Run for Congress
9. Interest Groups and Political Parties
What Interest Groups Do
- Public Advocacy Groups
- Private Interest Groups
Representation, and Power
- Interest Groups and Representation
- Interest Groups and Power
- Lobbyist Spending
- Regulating Interest Groups
What Do You Think: Assessing the Influence of Lobbyists
Lobbying the Federal Branches of Government
- Rise of the Issue
- Intergovernmental and Reverse Lobbying
- Lobbying the Courts
Political Parties and US Government
- What the Parties Do
- Two-Party America
- Third Parties in American Politics
How Parties Are Organized
- Party in the Electorate
- The Big Party Tents
America's Party Systems: Origins and Change
- Beginnings: First Party System (1789-1828)
- Rise: Second Party System (ca. 1828-1860)
- War and Reconstruction: Third Party System (1860-1896)
- Business and
Reform: Fourth Party System (1896-1932)
- Depression and New Deal: Fifth Party System (1933-1972)
- The Sixth Party System: The Parties at Equal Strength (1972-Present)
What Do You Think: Does the 2012 Election Suggest a New Party Period?
Party Identification . . . and Ideas
- Building Party Identification
- The Power of Party Attachment
What Do You Think: Personality and Party
Party Competitionand Partisanship
- Parties Rise Again
- Competition Intensifies
- Partisanship and Its Discontents
What Do You Think: Winner Take All
What Do You Think: Third Parties
What Do You Think: Partisanship
PART III. POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS
- Two Houses, Different Styles
What Do You Think: Senate Filibusters
- The House and the Senate Have Some Unique Roles
What Do You Think: Who Really Represents You?
- Trustees and Delegates
What Do You Think: Two Views of Representation
Elections: Getting to Congress--and Staying There
- Congressional Elections
Congress at Work
- The City on the
- Minnows and Whales: Congressional Leadership
- Committees: Workhorses of Congress
Legislative Policy Making
- The Importance of the Legislative Process
- Drafting a Bill
- Submitting the Bill
- Committee Action
- Floor Action
- Presidential Action: Separated Powers, Once More
Why Is Congress So Unpopular?
- Partisan Polarization in Congress
- Divided Government
What Do You Think: Is a Partisan Congress a Good Thing?
11. The Presidency
Defining the Presidency
- An Imperial Presidency?
- A Weak Office?
What Presidents Do
- Commander in Chief
- Top Diplomat
- The First Legislator
- Chief Bureaucrat
- Economist in Chief
- The Head of State
- Party Leader
- The Bully Pulpit:
- The Impossible Job
Presidential Leadership: Success and Failure in the Oval Office
- Managing the Public
- Approval Ratings
The President's Team: A Tour of the White House
- The Political Solar System: Presidential Appointments
- The Vice
- The Cabinet
- The Executive Office of the President
- The Heart of Power: The White House Office (WHO)
- The First Spouse
Bureaucracies in an American Democracy
- How the Bureaucracy Grew
- The Bureaucratic Model
- The Democratic Dilemma
What Bureaucracies Do
- Rule Making
How the Bureaucracy Is Organized
- The Cabinet Departments
- Other Agencies
Who Controls the Federal Bureaucracy?
- The People
- The President
- Interest Groups
- Bureaucratic Autonomy
- Democracy Revisited
Reforming the Bureaucracy
- Open Up the System
- Reinventing Government
What Do You Think: Should We Privatize More Government Functions?
13. The Judicial Branch
Who Are We? A Nation of Lawsand Lawyers
- Embracing the Law - and Lawsuits
- Declining trust
- Courts in American Culture
Organizing the Judicial Branch
- Divided We Rule
- State and Local Courts
- Judicial Selection
What Do You Think: How Should States
Select Their Judges?
- Federal Courts
- Specialized Courts
What Do You Think: Identity on the Bench
- Diversity in the Federal Judiciary
The Court's Role
- Judicial Review
- Activism Versus Restraint
- The Judicial Process
- Too Much Power . . . or Still
the "Least Dangerous" Branch?
The Supreme Court and How It Operates
- Hearing Cases
- Selecting Cases: Formal Requirements
- Conference Sessions and Written Decisions
- Confirmation Battles
Judicial Decision Making and Reform
- The Role of Law
- Ideology and
- Collegiality and Peer Pressure
- Institutional Concerns
Nineteen Cases You Should Know
1. Marbury v. Madison (1803)
2. McCullogh v. Maryland (1819)
3. Dartmouth College v. Woodward (1819)
4. Dred Scott v. Sandford (1857: discussed in Chapter 4)
5. Santa Clara Co. v. Southern Pacific Railroad (1886)
6. Plessy v. Ferguson (1896: see Chapter 5)
7. Lochner v. New York (1905)
8. Muller v. Oregon (1908)
9. Schenck v. United States (1919: discussed in Chapter 5)
10. National Labor Relations Board v. Jones and Laughlin
Steel Corporation (1937)
11. Korematsu v. US (1944)
12. Everson v. Board of Education (1947)
13. Brown v. Board of Education (1954: discussed in Chapter 2 and Chapter 5)
14. Mapp v. Ohio (1961: discussed in Chapter 4)
15. Gideon v. Wainwright (1963: see Chapter 5)
Roe v. Wade (1973: discussed in Chapter 4)
17. US v. Nixon (1974)
18. Bush v. Gore (2000)
19. National Federation of Independent Business v. Sebelius (2012)
What Do You Think: Name another Landmark Case
Reforming the Judiciary
- Ideas for Reform: More Resources
PART IV. POLICYMAKING
14. Domestic and Foreign Policy
Public Policymaking in Five (Not-So-Easy) Stages
3. Policy Formation
4. Policy Implementation
5. Policy Evaluation and Feedback
US Social Policy
Wars and Social Policy
- Old-Age Insurance: Social Security
- Unemployment Benefits
- Health and Disability: Medicare/Medicaid
What Do You Think: Should We Reform Social Security and Medicare?
The Federal Budget Process
- President's Budget Proposal
American Foreign Policy Goals
- Goal No. 1: Security
- Goal No. 2: Prosperity
- Goal No. 3: Spreading American Ideals
What Do You Think: Is America Exceptional?
Foreign Policy Strategies over Time
- Strategy 1: Standing Alone (1918-1939)
Strategy 2: The Cold War (1945-1991)
- Strategy 3: The New World Order (1989-2003)
- Strategy 4: The War on Terror (began 2001)
What Do You Think: Terrorists and the Rule of Law
APPENDIX I: The Declaration of Independence
APPENDIX II: The Constitution of the United States of
APPENDIX III: Federalist Papers 1, 10, and 51
Companion Website at www.oup.com/us/morone
James Morone (B.A., Middlebury College, and M.A. and PhD, University of Chicago) is Professor of Political Science at Brown University and five-time winner of the Hazeltine Citation for outstanding teacher of the year. A renowned scholar of American Political Science, Dr. Morone, an
award-winning author, has published eight books including The Heart of Power (2009), Hellfire Nation (2003), and The Democratic Wish (1990). He served as President of the Politics and History Section of the American Political Science Association from 1999-2000 and the New England Political Science
Association from 2002-03. He has been on the board of editors for eight scholarly journals and comments on politics in The New York Times, The London Review of Books, and The American Prospect. Rogan Kersh (M.A. and PhD, Yale) is Provost and Professor of Political Science at Wake Forest University.
A leading scholar in American Political Science, Dr. Kersh is best known for his work on health reform, obesity politics, and interest groups/lobbying. From 2006-12 he served as Associate Dean of the Wagner School of Public Service at New York University, where he built an undergraduate program,
helped conceive and create NYU's new campus in Abu Dhabi, and was integral in the launch of a new Global Institute of Public Health. Dr. Kersh has published two books and more than fifty academic articles and has provided commentary on U.S politics for dozens of different media outlets including
CNN, Newsweek, and The New York Times. He was President of the American Political Science Association's organized section on Health Politics and Policy in 2011-12, and is an elected Fellow of the National Academy of Public Administration.
Making Sense in the Social Sciences
- Margot Northey, Lorne Tepperman and Patrizia Albanese
- "By the Numbers" boxes containing fun facts help frame the quizzical reality of American politics and government.
- "See For Yourself" features enable students to connect with the click of a smart phone to videos and other interactive online content.
- Chapter One introduces students to
seven key American ideas, which are revisited throughout the text.
- "The Bottom Line" summaries conclude each chapter section, underscoring the most important aspects of the discussion.
- "What Do You Think?" boxes encourage students to use their critical-thinking skills and debate and/or take a
stand on important issues.
- Four major themes, in the form of questions to spark debate, are presented to students in Chapter One and appear throughout the text.